Copy-editing

A copy-editor makes sure that an author's text (copy) is ready for publication, removing obstacles between the reader and what the author wants to convey, and making sure that money is not wasted on alterations once the text is typeset. The level of copy-editing required may be light, normal, or heavy, depending on the text.

Light Edit

This is normally used in new editions of previously published material, and includes:

Thorough Edit

This is the level of edit that will be applied to most new text that is submitted for publication. As well as the services listed above it includes:

Intensive Edit

This is the level of edit applied when extensive rewriting of the text is required. It is often necessary for authors who are not native English speakers, and can be helpful for academic authors writing for a wider audience. As well as the services listed above it includes: